Understanding Money -or- Money and Class in America


As a university student Marshall McLuhan's "Understanding Media" explained many of my mass media-communication driven dreams, which featured the post-modern technological medium is the message  mythological structuring of our dream world. A dream world which featured games, airplanes, the telephone, films, music, TV shows, cars, roads, radio, time, books, newspapers, housing, fashion, food, weapons, and money, all of which were found at work. Media technologies were found pervasively operating in my nighttime dream visions.  McLuhan informs his readers; "A fairly complete handbook for studying the extensions of man could be made up from selections from Shakespeare" (p25). Here then is one such media driven political Shakespearean dream world.

Museum of Modern Art -or- Money and Class in American Dream Vision

"All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages."

William Shakespeare "As You Like It


Lewis H. Lapham in "Money and Class in America: Notes and Observations on the Civil Religion" provides his readers with an illuminating dream vision of American culture. The book's narrative can be seen serving a critical function (1) of American international political (2) realism. Lapham's satirical reverie provides understanding of the modern Shakesearean "scopic regime", and the political "optical unconscious" of the American dream and nightmare factory (3,4). Lapham clearly is seen participating, and is culturally fluent in the Shakespearean rhetorical and performance language of dream vision.

In a similar fashion the philosophical narrative inquiry of "Field Notes of a Dream Researcher" (Field Notes) allows the reader to philosophically "gaze" (5)  upon the aesthetic synecdoche of the tableaux vivants of "world literature", the Shakespearean theatrical "ages" surrounding the "human condition", the gesamtkunstwerk of the culture industry's (6,7) "narrative network" which shapes class consciousness via the oneirogenic influence of mass media on our psychophysical "oculocentric" structures of collective memory, and by the same performance token the scopic theatre (8) regime of our post-modern (9) dream world, and the world stage seen through the group narcissistic optics of the "mind's eye".  

Dreams provide the artistic doors of perception for seeing the theatre of the scopic political regime, insight into understanding  the global pecuniary culture, elitism, social stratification, class consciousness industry (10), in-group and out-group dynamics of the working and the leisure class (11). Dreams make visible the behavioural economic base and superstructure of the philosophy of money (12), which shapes the pecuniary cultural iconography (13) of fine art, popular art and the art of memory.

Let us remember, the word "class" and therefore the cultural behavioural economic "framing" ideology (14,15,16) of the "ruling class" etymologically derives from the Latin word "classis". In the literary historical genre art portrait studio the Field Notes "America's Moveable Feast", "Amerika and Planet Hollywood" ,"Anatomy of the American Dream and the American Nightmare" and "The American Military-Industrial Complex" all illustrate the Americana (17) political theatre, dream palace (18) ideography of high and popular culture, aesthetic scopophilic (19) and scopophobic (20) languages of oral and visual culture, and American behavioural economic cultural imperialism found in dreams.

Lapham's (21) 2005 writerly political dream and docu-drama "The American Ruling Class" (22) seeks to answer the question, "Does America have a ruling class?" The sociologist C. Wright Mills "The Power Elite" had already explored this elite-power-class-ideology structure question in the 1950's, elite theory clearly has numerous proponents including the dream researcher G. William Domhoff who asks; "Who Rules America?". 

Lapham's "life imitates art" dream vision provides us with political Shakespearean answers. Here is the dream;

Screening of the Tableaux Vivants of America-or -Political Ways of Seeing Amerika

     Toward the end of the 1960's, in a dream that still comes vividly to mind, I discovered myself in the gallery of a museum much like the Museum of Modern Art. In the midst of the enormous empty space the entire repertory company had assembled for what clearly was an important event. Dressed in evening clothes, the beau monde talked to itself in its customary way, filled the silence with urgent gossip and grazing disinterestedly on the elaborate hors d'oeuvres being handed down on silver trays. Three of the four walls served as giant movie screens, each of them showing a sequence of full-length films; the fourth wall opened through an arch into what looked like a dark closet.

     Early in the dream it became clear to me that the guests could wander in and out of the films at will. The films were in various genres: Hollywood epics, pornography, foreign films, historical dramas, situation comedies. Once within the world of films the quests acquired the appropriate roles, costumes and lines of dialogue. They could stay as long as they liked, playing courtiers in Elizabethan England, gangsters in the Havana of the 1940's, cowboys and Indians on the old American frontier, James Bond or the heroine in The Devil in Miss Jones. Between appearances they could return to the party and pick up the lines of meaningless talk, remarking on the weather in Calais or Fort Laramie.

     In the middle passages of the dream I understood that these excursions weren't merely idle. Everybody at the party was playing a macabre game. All the guests were looking for an answer to a question that never had been asked. They were allowed only one chance to whisper the answer into the ear of the master of revels, a man dressed in a ballet dancer's black sweater and tights. If they were wrong, the penalty was severe-just how severe gradually became clear as the ranks of the celebrated host began to thin and diminish.

     The arch opening through the fourth wall led into a surgical amphitheatre where gaily costumed homosexuals stripped the flesh from those guests who had failed the quiz. The victims were strung up on bars covered in red velvet. Their remains, cut up into modish squares and triangles, were served on toast or encroûte, to the surviving quests. What was terrifying about the dream was the insouciance of the ladies and gentlemen who continued to eat. They pretended not to notice that anything was amiss. Their talk was as bright and as empty as before, as if their absent friends simply had gone on to another party. For several months after waking from the dream I could still see in my mind's eye three well known hostesses conversing about the season's new literary masterpiece while delicately choosing an hors d'oeuvre from a tray decorated with the flesh of the author in whom they professes to notice the stirrings of genius.

Anatomy of American Film Criticism -or- American Dream and Political Shakepeare

Like so many other famous cities of the past, New York City (NYC) has provided the dramaturgical  cultural background for many sublime works of literature, art, theatre, film, TV,  music and dreams. Think of the iconic popular romantic films "Affair to Remember", "Breakfast at Tiffany's" and "Annie Hall". The original Star Trek TV episode "The City on the Edge of Forever" features a single female philanthropic individual living in Manhattan of the 1930's, serving as a political Shakespearean Sci-Fi stage, character, and plot device to dramatically show how one person can effect change in the future course of cultural transformation (23) on a planet.

NYC can be seen as a cosmopolitan multicultural art capital of collective memory, a city gorged with dreams and nightmares (24,25). From a American literary perspective Washington Irving "A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809) was an early commentator of the New York social and theatrical scene. If as Freud "Mourning and Monuments" showed that there is a dramaturgical relationship between memory (26), group narcissism, monuments and mourning (27), then Washington Square Arch in NYC serves this collective "Rip Van Winkle" memorial function.

The triumphal Washington Arch whose Roman "Janus" faced visual iconography serves the folklore thematic of the American revolutionary war and peace. The "Great Seal of the United States" found among other places on the one dollar bill and American passports, emblematically echoes the mythopoetic continuity of the same emblazoned iconic political symbolism of American history.  

The forensic case of Lapham's New York City upper class dream vision works to expose the elite's misanthropic "macabre game" rhetorically (28) driving the body political story arc of the American cultural dream factory (29,30), its' global political stage machinery and hegemonic influence. The dramatic political language game of dream vision artistically frames the global world view of the money game, cultural memory and the American social class venue.

Lapham longtime editor of the New York City based  "Harpers Magazine"uses the theatrical stage structures  of  the "proscenium arch" and the "fourth wall", making visible the invisible (31), serving to provide political participant-observational field research. Lapham's dream provides transparency for the reader and the audience to perceive, hear and see the back story, and literary thematic structure of the American dramatic "venue" of the class driven money game play.  

Arguably, Lapham is an expert eye witness, a reliable cultural narrator of the New York socialite scene, having  access to its' social register. Lepham's dramatic dream setting, a party in the gallery of a museum, like "The Museum of Modern Art". Museology, what better aesthetic venue to envision the epic political ekphrasis of American cultural heritage and the performing art of the collective memory theatre (32)?

At the museum's party we find a "repertory company" and films playing on three walls (33). The dream's visual rhetorical mise-en-scène appears to conceptually blend the NYC media "opsis" ideas of high and popular culture. This changing geo-political climate idea of the cultural memory museum of the taste makers can be explained using a quote made by Andreas Huyssen in "Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia", who notes that "The museum's role as a site of an elitist conservation, a bastion of tradition and high culture gave way to the museum as mass medium as a site of spectacular mise-en-scene and operatic exuberance."

Lapham references the social distinctions of the ranks of class (34) and taste conscious "beau monde", which politically frames the mise-en-scene pastiche of English cultural ideas including "the master of revels" as the "quiz" arbiter for the "homosexual" hangmen party game. From an English literary and theatre perspective, there is truly only one Master of the dream vision revels, namely the man who told his audience "To die, to sleep, To sleep, perchance to Dream; Aye, there's the rub, For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come." Shakespeare understood the English political rhetorical idiom, cultural memory, and the trans-cultural theatre canon of history. Lapham's American theatrical revue, provides insight into the Shakespearean allusions of hegemonic (35) cultural memory.

We are told, the Roman poet Lucretius waking from a dream understood the nature of the "persistence of vision", which also seems to provide the archetypal basis for Lepham's sublime American celluloid epic frame story of "Proustian" collective autobiographical involuntary memory. In "art world" reality, Salvidor Dali's surreal "Persistence of Memory" is found at the NYC Museum of Modern Art. Projected on three of the virtual museum walls (36) are an oneiric tableaux vivants of art film, a ut pictura poesis kinematic filmography of the American zeitgeist (37) of narcissism, art, entertainment and a cultural allusion of history.

Lapham's cultural museum evidently features Walter Benjamin's "optical unconscious" stagecraft  influence, "Ways of Seeing" in the trompe d'oeil artistic age of mechanical reproduction. Lapham apparently subscribes to oneiric film theory (38), creating a Hollywood dream factory optical auto-montage screenplay of historical dream sequences. The surreal film genre referencing of the movie theatre "costume drama" periods of history (39) include; the Hollywood epics, pornography, foreign films, historical dramas, situation comedies, courtiers in Elizabethan England, gangsters in the Havana of the 1940's, cowboys and Indians on the old American frontier, James Bond and the heroine in The Devil in Miss Jones.

A brief unofficial dream factory auto-montage of the oneirogenic Oscar winning national film registry costume drama hierarchy of genre especially of great Hollywood epic (40) period pieces can be envisioned; Gone with the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Gladiator, Shakespeare in Love and Titanic. The gangsters in Havana of the 1940's is clearly an allusion to "The Godfather: Part II" which pays homage to the Havana conference and the meeting of American Mafia leaders. The Cowboys and Indians film, which is considered by many as being a masterpiece, "The Searchers", another is James Fenimore Cooper's immortal frontier story, "The Last of the Mohicans". The James Bond film, "On Her Majesty's Secret Service". The Hollywood "X-rated" pornographic films like "Deep Throat" and "Debbie does Dallas" can be seen as an offshoot of the skin trade industry, Lapham directly references the so-called "golden age of porn" film "The Devil and Miss Jones" (41,42).

In the dream, Lapham envisions an opening in the fourth wall; "through an arch into what looked like a dark closet". Can we see the Shakespearean embodiment of the American "Epistemology of the Closet", which features the NYC "Queer Nation" sub-culture? The fourth wall arch in the dream leads to a "surgical amphitheatre", aka an "anatomical theatre", where homosexuals punish and make fodder (43) of those who in the party game failed the quiz . In of itself, the failed answer to the $64,000 question is most likely an allusion to the soap opera about the "Quiz Show" scandals (44). The French film maker Jean Renoir "The Rules of the Game" would likely artistically point to the moral theatre of punishment enlisted by the upper class elite (45,46,47,48).

For the psychoanalyst Bertram Lewin (49) the character traits of optimism and pessimism are rooted in the oral phase of childhood development. The dark (oral) triad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_triad of personality traits makes us believe in "homo homini lupus" and "man's inhumanity to man". Hollywood dream factory films that fit the "Once Upon a Time in America" cannibalistic description include; "Silence of the Lambs", "American Psycho" and "Soylent Green".

Should the reader doubt these American cannibalistic coup de grâce trains of thought about the human condition, let us remember Mark Twain's "Cannibalism in the Cars". From a literary perspective Twain is the Superintendent of American dreams (50,51). For starters (52,53,54,55), the erotic libinal language of psychoanalysis caters the museum party hor d'oeuvres made of human flesh (56,57). The "meaningless" talk (58), and the fodder for "gossip", plays into the psychoanalytic cannibalistic (59) feast myth of the ritual origin of civilization, taboos, mourning, melancholia and commemoration.

In the social order of American "oral cultural" (60) libidinal machinery of talk (61), the Shakespearean gossip of the elite is referenced in the Field Note "Marilyn Monroe in the Dream Factory". Backbiting in this "theatre of cruelty" is the "as if" political guiding fictional social norm.  In the literary epic (62) that is American dream the "Great American Novel" (GAN) unfolds. One popular forensic answer to the GAN quiz question is; "Tom Wolfe", "The Bonfire of Vanities" whose venue is life and death in NYC. Another answer is Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood".

Lapham's version of "Anatomy of Criticism" featuring the satirical dissection of the American Dream can be seen as being part and parcel of Leslie Fiedler's "Love and Death in the American Novel". The Field Note "Artistic Portrait of the American Dream" lays the critical literary foundation for the forensic inquiry of the double political game of fact and fiction of the poetic anatomy of gothic (63) class warfare (64).

Niall Ferguson in "Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire" believes the American social and political structures resemble those of the Roman Empire more so than that of the British Empire. In this political narrative sense of the Western canon, an intriguing idea about the psychodynamic textual literary history (65) comes to mind, namely Lapham's dream clearly re-works the Roman literary masterpiece attributed to the coutier Petronius, "Satyricon", which features a  dinner party, and an amphitheatre. We can envision the foreign film referenced in Lapham's dream, it is no other than Fellini's dream factory adaptation of "Satyricon" (66).

Via "Dionysio imitation", the dual adaptive inheritance of the scopophilic and scopophobic persistence of vision, memory, and dreams provide the via regia of the epic auto-montage dream sequences of the historical novel.  Via literary "reception", Satyricon, the great Roman novel can be seen as mimetically (67, 68) bridging the satirical intertextual play across the generational frame story of Western history and the collective autobiographical theatre of memory.  For Shakespeare, this poetic reception bridge of the Roman-Elisabethan mimetic canibalistic history of violence is found in his play, "Titus Andronicus".

True to the Shakespearean political language of the dream (69,70), Lapham tells his readers; "waking from the dream I could still see in my mind's eye three well known hostesses conversing about the season's new literary masterpiece while delicately choosing an hors d'oeuvre from a tray decorated with the flesh of the author in whom they professes to notice the stirrings of genius." Seeing with the "mind's eye" is a metaphor that can be traced to Shakespeare's Hamlet; "In my mind's eye, Horatio." (Hamlet, act 1, sc.2). While the allusion of the mind's eye comes from Hamlet, Lapham's three hostesses, are clearly a reworking of the three witches of Macbeth. In the Shakespearean political imagination of the mind's eye, perception and memory play on the neurological stage of the inner symbolic art world (71) of consciousness, narcissism, dreaming, eroticism, violence and history (72,73).

Lapham's Shakespearean political theatre of the mind's eye (74,75,76) provides insight into the American studies portrait studio of the theatre of sleep (77), and dreams (78,79), featuring the American dream (80,81,82). The epic gaze (83) of Western history shapes the interpretatio Americana, embodying the artistic persistence of visual prospective memory, featuring the poetic "Principle of Hope" of the utopian American dream.

Edgar Allan Poe's "Poetic Principle" can be pragmatically used to contrast the poetic utopian light and the dark gothic underbelly of the American dream, where the American nightmare takes forensic root. The gothic tapestry of the macabre oneirophrenic dream game (84) of nightmares, alienation, ressentiment, delusions of reference, anomie, violence and melancholia are the cultural poetic paradigmatic outcome, creating the political theatre of ethopathology of the "dream within a dreammythic ritual drive structure (85,86, 87).  

Lapham's cultural referencing of the weather in Calais and Fort Laramie, can be seen in the light of Shakespearean geo-political climate. Shakespeare's political cultural weather and climate concept mapping of European and American dream vision features the epic historical poetic moods (88,89) of war and peace. From a dream factory perspective the Elisabethan era film "Seven Seas to Calais" fits Lapham's European climate mapping description. As does "Revolt at Fort Laramie", featuring the American Western mythological frontier, which helps to oneirically open a theatrical archway for the envisioning and remembering the American Indian wars.

In the American museum of collective memory's library (90,91) which employs the gesamtkunstwerk of the social field of knowledge, the great books of the Western world are popularly adapted by the dream factory, and play on the silver dream screen before the mind's eye. The autobiographical great conversation of the American Adam (92), and the American literary canon (93) of the theatre of dream vision can educate (94, 95) and promote cultural literacy (96). Lapham's "genius" is in laying bare the American literary historical mosaic of Shakespearean dream vision, metaphors and literary devices we live by (97).

Shakespeare's "King's Men" "first folio" edition reportedly officially sanctioned by the Master of Revels, features historical period dramas, comedies and tragedies, which are all based on the once upon a time  romantic poetic imagination of love's dream (98). Within this Shakespearean mythopoetic (99) stage archive of the moral institutional theatre, political communication (100,101), collective poetic memory (102), tragic psychopathology and ritual comedy are found at play and work in our everyday dreams.

"Does America have a ruling class?" (103,104,105,106,107,108,109), dreams provide a sociological window (110,111) into understanding the archeology (112) of the social order (113) of dream vision (114,115,116), revealing the ideological power structure (117,118) of political mass media technology (119)  which becomes a political propaganda force of the ruling class (120). The "beau monde" of the American ruling class, drive the political frame story of the American Republic of dream vision, in all its' anatomical mass mediated nerves of government (121) and social order, its' institutions, its' social networks, its' education, its' social contracts, its' work, its' punishment, its' psychopathology (122) and ultimately the hegemonic interpersonal "who's who" of behavioural political economic communication priming patterns found at work in its' political class conscious dream world

As a political Shakespearean social systemic case study, we can deduce from Lapham's dark romantic dream, that Amerika's Republic of dreams (123,124) is metaphorically driven by its' group narcissistic libidinal (125,126, 127) behavioural economics. The Kafkaesque and Capraesque (128) political satire,  dissent, and protest against the mis-uses of authority and power (129, 130) of the ruling class features the eternal staging of "cabal" dreams of "Intrigue and Love" (131) which satirically amounts to "Much Ado about Nothing".

If we began our American Shakespearean theatrical dream vision tour of the beau monde's scopic regime (132,133), featuring the political art of war and peace, loving and hating (134, 135,136,138) in the Western world (139) with "As You Like It" and "all the world's a stage" spoken by the melancholy Jacques, then we can dramatically end our sentimental staging the world journey with the "carnivalesque" of "Midsummer Night's Dream" (140,141,142,143).

Midsummer Night's Dream romantic comedy features a repertory play within a play orchestrated by Philostrate, Shakespeare's Master of Revels. The Shakespearean stage festival for Theseus the founder King of Athens features the Roman poet Ovid's tragic story of the ill-fated lovers "Pyramus and Thisbe". Long before Nietzsche's philosophy of the "will to power", the Master of Revels employed the "mechanicals" in the "craftsman's play" satirizing the theatrical generational poetic political movement of the Dionysian and Apollonian "Green World" metadrama of history.

In the living ecological museum of the political beau monde's Shakespearean stage machinery, we can find Ariadne's "golden thread". Then we can see the political elite dramatis personae controlling the social and cultural order of history (Greek, Roman, British, American), language, consciousness, romance, mimetic strife, collective memory and the meta-history of the work and play of the Dream as seen in the collective mind's eye.

Shakespeare as the Master of Revels creates a metafiction stage production of the body political art history of dream work and dream vision which has influenced, and revolutionized literary styles, re-shaped plot and character development, and created the theatrical foundation for modern literary criticism of the staging of world literature. The Shakespearean stage machinery patterns in the histories, tragedies and comedies imitate the cultural archetypal movement of a "green world", a place where both internal and external dramatic poetic conflicts, and the cultural mimetic dialectical tension between Apollonian and Dionysian values (144) find dramaturgical oneiric transformational resolution.

Midsummer Night's Dream is an archetypal political fable of fairyland (read staging the collective political unconscious), where Cupid's archetypal white flower love drug poetically intoxicates those who enter the timeless magical dream theatre. Shakespeare's fantasy land (145,146) of magic dream land enchantment (147) is an allusion to the epic English poem of Edmund Spencer, "Faerie Queene". Yet, Fairyland has always existed as the collective unconscious fairy tale dream world created by the eternal poetic generational archetypal archive of the symbolic  "Great Mother". A trans-generational Dream stage cycle of the artistic revels of play, fairy tales, children's dreams, imagination, make believe and theatre is enacted (148, 149).

Lapham's Shakespearean "the play's the thing" (150), features the archetypal (151) theatrical dream world staging of the meta-history of collective dramatic memory, play and imagination (152, 153,154), seen in the mind's eye. We can thus end Lapham's American Shakespearean tour de force Dream lesson, with the words spoken by the "The Golden Ass" inspired character Nick Bottom; "I have had a most rare vision. I have had a dream, past the wit of man to say what dream it was." (155)



Shakespeare's Literary Anatomy of History-or-Political Language in the Global Theatre


"World domination, same old dream." James Bond, Dr No


  1. Northrop FryeThe Well Tempered Critic
  2. Frederic Jameson, The Political Unconscious 
  3. David Madden, American dreams, American nightmares
  4. Hortense PowdermakerHollywood, the dream factory
  5. David Levin, The Philosopher's Gaze
  6. Theodor Adorno, The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture
  7. Pierre Bourdieu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_BourdieuThe Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature
  8. Raphael Samuel, Theatre of Memory: Past and Present in Contemporary Culture
  9. Hans Magnus Enzensberger, The Consciousness Industry: On Literature, Politics and the Media
  10. Basel BernsteinClass, Code and Control (volumes 1-4)
  11. Thorsten Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
  12. Georg Simmel, The Philosophy of Money 
  13. Erwin Panofsky http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_PanofskyStudies in Iconology
  14. Karl Mannheim http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia
  15.  Louis Althusser http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Althusser, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideology_and_Ideological_State_Apparatuses 
  16.  Jürgen Habermas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%BCrgen_Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Structural_Transformation_of_the_Public_Sphere 
  17. Encyclopedia Americana, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia_Americana
  18. Jeffrey Richards, Age of the Dream Palace http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_Age_of_the_Dream_Palace.html?id=6E-caLC4HZEC&redir_esc=y
  19. Gerard Malanga, Scopophilia: The love of looking http://books.google.ca/books/about/Scopophilia.html?id=xO9TAAAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y
  20. David W. Allen, The Fear of Looking https://books.google.ca/books?id=X0xHBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA6&dq=fear+of+looking&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wiQnVcKuI8aayASR14KoDg&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=fear%20of%20looking&f=false
  21. James M Thomas, The Art of the Actor-manager
  22. David Levin, Hegemony of Vision
  23. Jürgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action
  24. M. Christine Boyer, The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainment https://books.google.ca/books?id=c19GrhVBV90C&printsec=frontcover&dq=24.%09M.+Christine+Boyer,+The+City+of+Collective+Memory:+Its+Historical+Imagery+and+Architectural+Entertainment&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WCYnVdiXA9CKyASFnYDoCQ&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  25. Ian Walker, City Gorged with Dreams: Surrealism and Documentary Photography in Interwar Paris https://books.google.ca/books?id=SSbU3ECswOsC&pg=PA220&dq=25.%09Ian+Walker,+City+Gorged+with+Dreams:+Surrealism+and+Documentary+Photography+in+Interwar&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qiYnVarzMIP5yAS__4GYBA&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  26. Mary Bergstein, Mirrors of Memory: Freud, Photography, and the History of Art http://books.google.ca/books/about/Mirrors_of_Memory.html?id=Ve-1cR3EtzEC&redir_esc=y
  27. Peter Homans, The Ability to Mourn: Disillusionment and the Social Origins of Psychoanalysis https://books.google.ca/books?id=AKBrFtbpBsAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=peter+homan+ability+to+mourn&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DUIoVZnSCI2YyQSIyICADw&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=peter%20homan%20ability%20to%20mourn&f=false
  28. Bert States, The Rhetoric of Dreams
  29. Roland Marchand, Advertising the American Dream https://books.google.ca/books?id=hqafM0xZjqIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=advertising+the+american+dream&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LEMoVen5DtWtyATowIHoBA&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=advertising%20the%20american%20dream&f=false
  30. Rosalind H. Williams, Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-century France https://books.google.ca/books?id=o42S5iSPEN8C&pg=PA407&dq=raymond+williams+dream+world&hl=en&sa=X&ei=80MoVdjbHcWUyAT01YHwCw&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=raymond%20williams%20dream%20world&f=false
  31. Susan Buck-Morss, The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project https://books.google.ca/books?id=5Ejq67KMYoIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=dialectics+of+seeing&hl=en&sa=X&ei=00QoVdb-BYmnyATY7YHYBw&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=dialectics%20of%20seeing&f=false
  32. Lina Bolzoni, The Gallery of Memory http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_Gallery_of_Memory.html?id=sdOr7qM4-xYC&redir_esc=y
  33. Laura Mulvey http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laura_Mulvey,  Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/display/MarkTribe/Visual+Pleasure+and+Narrative+Cinema
  34. Basil Bernstein, Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity http://books.google.ca/books?id=_V0L-6eTYUAC&q=dream#v=onepage&q=dream&f=false
  35. Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegemony_or_Survival
  36. Robert Eberwein, Film and the Dream Screen https://books.google.ca/books?id=EbD_AwAAQBAJ&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=eberwein+film+and+dream+screen&source=bl&ots=GIA0U2cQPU&sig=G0Swk9gSv3VmKT8O22fM6ICYwIA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7EkoVZKbG4WpyATpuoGQDA&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=eberwein%20film%20and%20dream%20screen&f=false
  37. George Lipsitz, Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture
  38. Paul  Elliot, Film Theory of the Postmodern Scopic Regime
  39. Umberto Eco, Faith In Fakes: Travels in Hyperreality http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faith_in_Fakes
  40. Helen Lovatt,  The Epic Gaze http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_Epic_Gaze.html?id=MW8NknUriRQC&redir_esc=y
  41. Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President's_Commission_on_Obscenity_and_Pornography
  42. Camille Paglia, Sexual Personae http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_Personae
  43. F. Gonzalez-Crussi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F._Gonzalez-Crussi,  Notes of an Anatomist
  44. Kent Anderson, Television Fraud https://books.google.ca/books?id=mQFPP7kikegC&printsec=frontcover&dq=quiz+show+scandals&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dFEoVcDGJNe3yATXk4CAAw&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=quiz%20show%20scandals&f=false
  45. Michel Foucault, History of Sexuality http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_History_of_Sexuality
  46. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punishment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discipline_and_Punish
  47. Michel Foucault, Order of Things http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Order_of_Things
  48. Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security,_Territory,_Population
  49. Betram Lewin, Psychoanalysis of Elation
  50. Mark Twain, Letters from the Earth http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letters_from_the_Earth
  51.  John Bird, Mark Twain and Metaphor https://books.google.ca/books?id=VQwHk2-WOnkC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=mark+twain+and+metaphor&source=bl&ots=HL3N05Hskc&sig=9SiYbCltfLxwZch5wdOsBGOJKJY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nlIoVcLOAsL2yQSM9oKYCQ&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=mark%20twain%20and%20metaphor&f=false
  52. Deborah Root,  Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, and the Commodification of Difference
  53. Jennifer Brown, Cannibalism in Literature and Film
  54. Jeff Berglund, Cannibal Fictions: American Explorations of Colonialism, Race, Gender, and Sexuality 
  55. Maggie Kilgour, Communion to cannibalism: An Anatomy of Metaphors of Incorporation https://books.google.ca/books?id=9xUABAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=kilgour+cannibal&hl=en&sa=X&ei=y1MoVbK-BoaUyQTlnIDoCA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=kilgour%20cannibal&f=false
  56. Paul Schilder, The Image and Appearance of the Human Body https://books.google.ca/books?id=btf7AQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=paul+schilder&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9VMoVbqSBc-OyAT9tYGIDw&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=paul%20schilder&f=false
  57. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols https://books.google.ca/books?id=59xMpcArx1QC&pg=PA40&dq=mary++douglas+symbol&hl=en&sa=X&ei=blQoVcu4N42pyAT2moG4Cg&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=mary%20%20douglas%20symbol&f=false
  58. Charles K. Ogden, I.A Richards, The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language Upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism
  59. Eli Sagan, Cannibalism: human aggression and cultural form
  60. Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy https://books.google.ca/books?id=gmI0E1KbCaQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=walter+ong+orality&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1VQoVbrKFYaPyATO3IDQCQ&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=walter%20ong%20orality&f=false
  61. Anne Freadman, The Machinery of Talk: Charles Peirce and the Sign Hypothesis https://books.google.ca/books?id=Nf5DMIVJR30C&printsec=frontcover&dq=machinery+of+talk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KFUoVZrJCMSkyASX8YCAAg&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=machinery%20of%20talk&f=false
  62. James Truslow Adams http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Truslow_AdamsThe Epic of America
  63. Joyce Carol Oates, American Gothic Tales
  64. Peter Gay http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Gay, The Bourgeois Experience
  65. György Lukács http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gy%C3%B6rgy_Luk%C3%A1cs,  History and Class Consciousness
  66. Tullio Kezich http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tullio_Kezich,  Fellini
  67. Erich Auerbach, Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimesis:_The_Representation_of_Reality_in_Western_Literature
  68. Rene Girard http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Girard,  Theatre of Envy: William Shakespeare
  69. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (eds), Political Shakespeare
  70. Frank Kermode http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Kermode,  Shakespeare's Language
  71. Howard Becker, Art Worlds https://books.google.ca/books?id=tPAWsKySzocC&printsec=frontcover&dq=howard+becker+art+worlds&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ynAoVYiKIZaoyATT5IGACg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=howard%20becker%20art%20worlds&f=false
  72. Harold Bloom, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human
  73. Northrop Frye, On Shakespeare
  74. Mary Garber,  Dream in Shakespeare: From Metaphor to Metamorphosis
  75. Peter Brown, Reading Dreams: The Interpretation of Dreams from Chaucer to Shakespeare
  76. Jay Ingram, Theatre of the Mind
  77. Guido Almansi, Claude Bequin, Theatre of sleep: an anthology of literary dreams
  78. Lawrence R. Samuel, The American Dream: A Cultural History
  79. Salomon Resnick, Theatre of Dreams
  80. Jim Cullen, The American Dream: A Short History of an Idea that Shaped a Nation
  81. Dan Rather, The American Dream: Stories from the Heart of Our Nation
  82. Calvin Jillson, Pursuing the American Dream: Opportunity and Exclusion Over Four Centuries
  83. Helen Lovatt, Epic Gaze: Vision, Gender and Narrative in Ancient Epic
  84. Anne Faraday, Dream Game
  85. Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_Ludens
  86. Jean Piaget, Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood
  87. Gillian Beer, Darwinian Plots
  88. Eduardo Cadava, Emerson and the Climates of History
  89. Bernard Mergen, Weather Matters: An American Cultural History Since 1900
  90. Jennifer Summit, Memory's Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England 
  91. Thomas J. Anastasio (et al.), Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation
  92. Richard W. B. Lewis The American Adam: Innocence, Tragedy, and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century
  93. Peter Ackroyd, Albion: Origins of the English Imagination
  94. Jennifer L. Hochschild, The American Dream and the Public School
  95. Daniel Golden, The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way Into Elite Colleges--and who Gets Left Outside the Gates
  96. E. D. Hirsh Jr., Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know
  97. George Lakoff  and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By
  98. Douglas B. Wilson, The Romantic Dream: Wordsworth and the Poetics of the Unconscious
  99. Frank D. McConnell, Storytelling and Mythmaking: Images from Film and Literature
  100. William Stephenson, The Play Theory of Mass Communication                                      


101. Gary Alan Fine, Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games as Social Worlds

102. Gian Biagio Conte, Charles Segal, The Rhetoric of Imitation: Genre and Poetic Memory in Virgil and Other Latin Poets

103. Milton Friedman, Free to Choose

104. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Capitalism and Schizophrenia

105. Stuart Ewen, All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture

106. Barbara Ehrenreich, Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class  

107. Vance Packard, The Hidden Persuaders

108. Daniel Horowitz, Vance Packard & American Social Criticism

109. John Taylor, Circus of Ambition: The Culture of Wealth and Power in the Eighties

110. Anne Friedberg, The Virtual Window: From Alberti to Microsoft http://books.google.ca/books/about/The_Virtual_Window.html?id=PrLYAAAAMAAJ

111. Anne Friedberg, Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern Virtual Window

112. Gary Shapiro, Archeology of Vision: Foucault and Nietzsche on Seeing and Saying

113. Hugh Dalziel Duncan, Communication and Social Order

114. Artemidorus, Interpretation of Dreams

115. Sigmund Freud, Interpretation of Dreams

116.  Henri F. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Discovery_of_the_Unconscious

117. Charlotte Beradt, The Third Reich of Dreams

118. Martin J. Manning, Herbert Romerstein, Historical Dictionary of American Propaganda

119. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media

120. Edward S. Herman, Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_Consent

121. Karl Deutsch, The Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control

122. Harold Lasswell, Psychopathology and Politics

123. Delmore Schwartz, In Dreams Begin Responsibilities

124. Ross Wetzsteon, Republic of Dreams

125. John O'Neil, Sociology as Skin Trade

126. Jean Lyotard, Libido Economy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libidinal_Economy

127. Angela Carter, The War of Dreams  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Infernal_Desire_Machines_of_Doctor_Hoffman

128. Raymond Carney, American Vision: The Films of Frank Capra

129. Michael Knox Beran, Pathology of the Elites

130. Ronald R. Thomas, Dreams of Authority: Freud and the Fictions of the Unconscious

131. Eli Sagan, At the Dawn of Tyranny

132. Christian Metz, The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema

133. Siegfried Kracauer, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film

134. Erich Fromm, Art of Loving

135. Sigmund Freud, Thoughts for the Times on War and Death

136. Ian Suttie, The Origins of Love and Hate

137. Franco Fornari, The psychoanalysis of war

138. Denis de Rougemont, Love in the Western World http://books.google.ca/books?id=pou5H33LvsAC&q=dream#v=snippet&q=dream&f=false

139. Stephen Greenblatt, Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare

140. Leonard Tennenhouse, Power on Display: The Politics of Shakespeare's Genres

141. Alice Lotvin Birney, Satiric Catharsis in Shakespeare: A Theory of Dramatic Structure

142. Sarah Hatchuel, Nathalie Vienne-Guerrin, Shakespeare on screen : a midsummer night's dream

143. Faith Nostbakken, Understanding A Midsummer Night's Dream

144. Ruth Benedict, Patterns of Culture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Benedict#Patterns_of_Culture

145. Gary Fine, Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games as Social Worlds

146. John Clute and John Grant, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Encyclopedia_of_Fantasy

147. Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Uses_of_Enchantment

148. Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of the Mind http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steps_to_an_Ecology_of_Mind

149. Edith Cobb, The Ecology of the Imagination in Childhood

150. Jennifer Ann Bates, Hegel and Shakespeare on Moral Imagination

151. Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns of Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagination

152. Robert Edmond Jones, The Dramatic Imagination: Reflections and Speculations on the Art of the Theatre

153. David Read Johnson (ed), Current Approaches in Drama Therapy

154. Lin Carter, Imaginary Worlds: The Art of Fantasy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imaginary_Worlds:_The_Art_of_Fantasy 

155. Patrick H. Hutton, History as an Art of Memory http://books.google.ca/books?id=ydfrLnFRn4AC&q=dream#v=onepage&q=memory&f=false







All material Copyright 2006 International Institute for Dream Research. All rights reserved.